Prof. Bishnu Raj Tiwari
Prof. Bishnu Raj Tiwari
Pokhara University, Nepal
Title: Seroprevalence and Risk Perception of Transfusion-transmissible infections among Voluntary Blood Donors in Western region of Nepal
Background: Transfusion-transmissible infections particularly hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are rapidly spreading in developing countries. The study assessed seroprevalence and risk perception of HBV, HCV and HIV among voluntary blood donors in Western Region of Nepal.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among voluntary blood donors in collaboration with Western Regional Blood Transfusion Service. A total of 13,180 adults aged 15-60 years attending for blood donation from July, 2016 to June, 2017 at Pokhara valley were enrolled in the study. Socio-demographic variables and risk perception was assessed by interview. Risk perception was measured by Likert-type scale: ‘no risk’, ‘little’, moderate, high and very high risk, ranging from 1 to 5. Blood samples were analyzed for the presence of HCV antibodies and HBsAg and HIV antibodies by ELISA. Proportion of seropositive status was computed, and t- test was applied to find out the mean difference of risk perception.
Result: Out of the total population, 83.7% participants were male; mean age of the participants was 29.9 (±8.9). Seroprevalece of HBV was 0.3% in total, 0.3% among males and 0.2% among females. Seroprevalece of HCV was 0.1% in total population, 0.1% among males and only one case among females. Similarly, HIV prevalence was 0.1% in total samples, none of the case was found among females. Same prevalence of HBV was found among those who reported having multiple sexual partners and those who did report i.e., 0.3%. Tattoo piercing and non-piercing groups had also similar prevalence of HBV. However, the prevalence of HCV was double among tattoo piercing group as compared to those who did do it (0.2% vs 0.1%). None of the case of HCV was found among those who reported multiple sexual partners. HCV prevalence was 0.2% among unmarried and 0.1% among married. HIV prevalence was 0.2% among tattoo piercing group and 0.1% among non-piercing group; 0.2% among those who reported multiple sexual partners and 0.1% among those who did not; and 0.2% among unmarried and 0.1% among married individuals.
Among all, the highest mean risk perception was observed of HIV (x̅, 3.43, SD, ±1.28) followed by HBV (x̅, 2.74, SD, ±1.24) and HCV (x̅, 2.68, SD, ±1.22). Mean risk perception of HBV, HCV and HIV did not differ significantly across gender and marital status (P>0.05). In addition, significant association was not found between the risk perception of HBV and HCV and having multiple sexual partners among the participants. However, there was significant association between HIV risk perception and number of sexual partners, indicating more risk perception among those who reported having single sexual partner ( P<0.05). There was not significant difference in risk perception of HBV, HCV and HIV among tattoo piercing group and non-piercing group.
Conclusion: The study revealed low seroprevalence and low risk perception of HBV, HCV and HIV among voluntary blood donors in Western Nepal. Higher prevalence of HIV was observed among unmarried, tattoo piercing individuals and those having multiple sexual partners. Risk perception of HBV and HCV did not differ across gender, marital status, number of sex partners and tattoo piercing practice. Significantly higher risk perception of HIV was found among those who reported having single sexual partner.
“Immune status of HIV patients in Nepal” is the work with which Professor Tiwari successfully achieved his Ph.D. in Microbiology from Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal in 2009. Professor Tiwari, a former Vice Chancellor (VC) of the Pokhara University is currently working as a professor of Microbiology at the School of Health and Allied Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, Pokhara University, Nepal. His contribution in scientific research and academics in the field of blood born infections in Nepal is remarkable. He has already published more than 50 scientific articles in peer-reviewed national and international journals in the area of blood born infections including Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis BVirus (HBV) Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), coinfection and opportunistic infections such as tuberculosis, intestinal parasites etc. At present, he has been working as Chief Editor of a peer-reviewed Journal of Journal of Health and Allied Sciences. Along with scientific articles, he has attended many conferences, seminar and workshop related to clinical microbiology, HIV/AIDS, hepatitis and other Blood born infections conducted in Nepal other countries. In addition, professor Tiwari had contributed in Academic research through the presentation of abstracts and research paper in dozens of national and international conferences and seminars. Through supervision of thesis of graduate study, he is sharing his research knowledge skill in the field of clinical microbiology in Nepal.