• Dr. Lucijan Mohorovic
  • Dr. Lucijan Mohorovic
  • University of Rijeka School of Medicine, Croatia
  • Title: Eradication of the Coal Combustion Harmful Products
  • Abstract:

    Background. Continuous exposure to strong exogenous oxidants such as NOx (NO and NO2) reversibly oxidizes oxyhemoglobin (Fe2+) to methemoglobin (Fe3+), and irreversible methemoglobinemia can arise because of disruption of the oxidant/antioxidant balance. Sulphur dioxide metabolites, as inhibitors of antioxidants, also influence the synergistic degradation of antioxidant thiols. Methemoglobin(MetHb) by itself and heme (a product of methemoglobin catabolism) have pro-oxidant properties and cause important structural and functional changes in the vascular endothelium such as growth arrest, senescence, morphological alterations and cell apoptosis.
    According to our hypothesis, a pregnant woman continuously inhaling nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide as fuel burning products, will traverse three, not two from current thought, distinct stages.
    In the first blood circulation stage the inhalation of a continuous, but not extremely high level of nitrogen oxides (nitrogen dioxide and nitric oxide) from the time of preconception enters the mother’s blood circulation directly through the alveolar-capillary membrane, transforming the hemoglobin into its pathological reversible form methemoglobin, including altered vascular reactivity, initiate oxidative damage and endothelial cell dysfunction. The formation of methemoglobin leads to the destruction of erythrocytes and farther consequences.
    Methemoglobinemia symptoms in “maternal preeclampsia“ are also common in severe anaemia, preeclampsia and eclampsia, supporting their potential role as a precursor for these conditions. The oxidants crossing the Placental Barrier then cause “fetal preeclampsia”.
    The levels of MetHb and its catabolic products as bilirubin-biliverdin, CO and toxic Fe (III) with paramagnetic nature traverse the Blood-Brain Barrier and induce adverse effects on brain development.
    MetHb has the role as a carrier, donor of cytotoxic and redox-active ferric (Fe3+) iron, which can directly accumulate and increase the rate of capillary endothelial cell apoptosis, and may cross into the brain parenchyma, to the astrocytes, glia, neurons, and other neuronal cells (neurovascular unit). This supposition helps us to understand the transport and neuronal accumulation process of ferric iron, and determine how iron is transported and accumulated within the cells, identifiable as “Brain rust”
    Results. Extensive research found that the incidences of neonatal jaundice (p =0.034), heart murmur (p = 0.011) and disorders such as dyslalia and learning/memory impairments (p =0.002) were significantly higher in those children born from mothers with methemoglobinemia. Our hypothesis suggests that prenatal iron abnormalities could lead to greater neuronal death, the disease ageing process, and neurodegenerative disorders such as AD and other neurodegenerative diseases Proper statement should emphasize the role of methemoglobin and heme which by themselves have pro-oxidant properties. An abundant source of cytotoxic and redox-active ferric (Fe3+) iron, without ferrous-ferric inversions “insitu”, as a cause of iron-induced oxidative stress has a direct and specific impact on the endothelial small vessels of the brain, and increases the rate of endothelial cell apoptosis, making it possible to cross over from methemoglobin and heme derived ferric iron and accumulate in the brain parenchyma.

  • Biography:
    Dr Lucijan Mohorovic attained his MD, and specializing in Obstetrics and Gynecology, from the School of Medicine of the University of Rijeka. His specialist education continued with postgraduate studies in social medicine and ecology, after which he completed his PhD Doctorate in Medicine with a thesis entitled: " THE INFUENCE OF COAL COMBUSTION PRODUCTS ON THE COURSE OF PREGNANCY AND ITS OUTCOME IN MICRO- REGIONAL CONDITIONS”. Rijeka 1991.

    He is currently engaged as a Research Assistant at the Department of Environmental Medicine School of Medicine of the University of Rijeka,.

    For more than 20 years he has focused on the protection of a healthy environment, originating from medical praxis in obstetric and gynecological primary care and long-term empirical observation of, and scientific research into, coal burning products which are harmful to reproductive health in the airpolluted environment around a coal power plant. In 2008 he was awarded first prize for best oral presentation at the XXIV International Congress “The Fetus as a Patientt” in Frankfurt/Main, Germany, June 12-14, for his presentation (ARE NEONATAL JAUNDICE,HEART MURMUR, DYSLALIA AND LEARNING/MEMORY IMPAIRMENTS CONSEQUENCES OF MOTHER EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL OXIDANTS?), thereby establishing in recognized scientific research the relationship between the exposure of the mother and fetus to harmful fossil fuels combustion products and mental health disorders manifested in childhood and teenager hood. He was nominated by the Institute of Medicine of the US National Academies for the 2009 Rhoda and Bernard Sarnat International Prize in Mental Health.
    The proper fundamental contribution of retrospective epidemiological and prospective laboratory research lies in the finding that, under the influence of oxidants from the environment, the level of methemoglobin and sulfhemoglobin in pregnancy is increased, and in certain circumstances this affects the course and the outcome of pregnancy. A special programmed, designed exclusively for the occasion, ensured that all pregnant women were processed at the clean and at the polluted stages of research. The proper original three stages hypothesis explains the development of pregnancy complications, beginning with the “first-blood circulation stage”, where inhaled oxidants convert hemoglobin into reversible methemoglobin or methemoglobinemia causative of damage to
    human health. Proper research findings suggest that the level of methemoglobin in the bloodstream is an effective biomarker, predictor and precursor of the adverse effects of environmental toxins on the mother and fetus, and can indirectly explain the unrecognized level of fetal methemoglobin, and fetal death, frequently named “unexplained”. This hypothesis emphasises the role of methemoglobin, which has previously been underestimated.
    He point out the distinctive events on last two years scientific recognitions. So on behalf of organizing committee of the 1st International Congress of Gynaecology and Obstetrics(ICGO-2012), he was invited for Chair/Speaker on December 2-4, 2012 at Guangzhou China with a theme “New Horizons in Women’s Health” on session of Prenatal Diagnosis and Perinatal Medicine.
    He was invited to the "4th World Congress on Bioavailability and Bioequivalence: Pharmaceutical R & D Summit"(BABE-2013) during May 20-22 at Beijing, China . Basing on his expertise, he was honored by giving the position as an Organizing Committee Member for BABE-2013, and an opportunity as a plenary speaker at this conference. and a position as the chair/co-chair for the session of interest.
    Recently at July 2013, he was nominate as Co-Editor for The Open Biomarkers Journal “ A peer reviewed Open Accesss journal”.

Important Dates
April 13-15, 2016
Paper or Abstract Submission Due:
December 8, 2015  >> February 25, 2016
Early Bird Registration due for Accepted Paper or Abstract: 10 days after acceptance notification

Early Bird Registration due for Audience: January 28, 2016
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